Friday, October 14, 2011

"Where on such an earth are men who walk like gods?"

Dates Country Expedition Name(s) Ship(s) Leader Expedition summary Refs
1897–99 Belgium Belgian Antarctic Expedition Belgica A bearded man of about 30 years in fur hat and winter coat.
Gerlache, Adrien deAdrien de Gerlache
This was the first expedition to overwinter within the Antarctic Circle, after the ship was icebound in the Bellingshausen Sea. It collected the first annual cycle of Antarctic observations. It also reached 71°30'S, and discovered the Gerlache Strait. [15][2][16]
1898–1900 UK British Antarctic Expedition 1898
(Southern Cross Expedition)
Southern Cross A man with moustache in a winter coat with a hat covering his ears.
Borchgrevink, CarstenCarsten Borchgrevink
The first expedition to overwinter on the Antarctic mainland (Cape Adare), it was the first to make use of dogs and sledges. It made the first ascent of Great Ice Barrier,[17] and set a Farthest South record at 78°30'S. It also calculated the location of the South Magnetic Pole. [18][19][20]
1901–04 UK National Antarctic Expedition 1901
(Discovery Expedition)
Morning (relief ship)
Terra Nova (relief ship)
A man in ceremonial military uniform.
Scott, Robert FalconRobert Falcon Scott
It made the first ascent of the Western Mountains in Victoria Land, and discovered the polar plateau. Its southern journey set a new Farthest South record, 82°17'S.[21] Many other geographical features were discovered, mapped and named. This was the first of several expeditions based in McMurdo Sound. [22][23][24]
1901–03 German EmpireGermany First German Antarctic Expedition
(Gauss Expedition)
Gauss A man with moustache in a smart dress.
Drygalski, Erich vonErich von Drygalski
The first expedition to investigate eastern Antarctica, it discovered the coast of Kaiser Wilhelm II Land, and Mount Gauss. The expedition's ship became trapped in ice, which prevented more extensive exploration. [25][26][27]
1901–03 Sweden Swedish Antarctic Expedition Antarctic A middle-aged bearded man in a smart dress.
Nordenskiöld, OttoOtto Nordenskiöld
This expedition worked in the east coastal area of Graham Land, and was marooned on Snow Hill Island and Paulet Island in the Weddell Sea, after the sinking of its expedition ship. It was rescued by the Argentinian naval vessel Uruguay. [28][29][30]
1902–04 UK Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Scotia A middle-aged bearded man wearing a tie, waistcoat and jacket.
Bruce, William SpeirsWilliam Speirs Bruce
The permanent Orcadas weather station in South Orkney Islands was established. The Weddell Sea was penetrated to 74°01'S, and the coastline of Coats Land was discovered, defining the sea's eastern limits. [31][32]
1903–05 France Third French Antarctic Expedition Français An older bearded man with a hat wearing a tie and coat. He is keeping a pile of papers or documents under his arm.
Charcot, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Charcot
Originally intended as a relief expedition for the stranded Nordenskiöld party, the main work of this expedition was the mapping and charting of islands and the western coasts of Graham Land, on the Antarctic peninsula. A section of the coast was explored, and named Loubet Land after the President of France. [33][34][35]
1907–09 UK British Antarctic Expedition 1907
(Nimrod Expedition)
Nimrod A young man wearing a tie, jacket and waistcoat.
Shackleton, ErnestErnest Shackleton
The first expedition led by Shackleton. Based in McMurdo Sound, it pioneered the Beardmore Glacier route to the South Pole, and the (limited) use of motorised transport. Its southern march reached 88°23'S, a new Farthest South record 97 geographical miles from the Pole. The Northern Party reached the location of the South Magnetic Pole. [36][37][38]
1908–10 France Fourth French Antarctic Expedition Pourquoi-Pas? IV An older bearded man with a hat wearing a tie and coat. He is keeping a pile of papers or documents under his arm.
Charcot, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Charcot
This continued the work of the earlier French expedition with a general exploration of the Bellingshausen Sea, and the discovery of islands and other features, including Marguerite Bay, Charcot Island, Renaud Island, Mikkelsen Bay, Rothschild Island. [33][39]
1910–12 Japan Japanese Antarctic Expedition Kainan Maru An Asian man in military uniform with a hat.
Shirase, NobuNobu Shirase
The first non-European Antarctic expedition carried out a coastal exploration of King Edward VII Land, and investigated the eastern sector of the Great Ice Barrier, reaching 80°5'S. [40][41]
1910–12 Norway Amundsen's South Pole expedition Fram A bearded man wearing a bow tie and coat.
Amundsen, RoaldRoald Amundsen
First to the South Pole: Amundsen set up camp on the Great Ice Barrier, at the Bay of Whales. He discovered a new route to the polar plateau via the Axel Heiberg Glacier. A party of five led by Amundsen reached the South Pole via this route on 15 December 1911. [42][43][44]
1910–13 UK British Antarctic Expedition 1910
(Terra Nova Expedition)
Terra Nova Man in winter coat wearing a balaclava or ski mask style headgear.
Scott, Robert FalconRobert Falcon Scott
Scott's last expedition, based like his first in McMurdo Sound. Scott and four companions reached the South Pole via the Beardmore route on 17 January 1912, 33 days after Amundsen. All five died on the return journey from the Pole, through a combination of starvation and cold. [45][46][47]
1911–13 German EmpireGermany Second German Antarctic Expedition Deutschland Middle-aged man wearing a tie, waistcoat and jacket.
Filchner, WilhelmWilhelm Filchner
The objective was the first crossing of Antarctica. The expedition made the southernmost Weddell Sea penetration to date, reaching 77°45'S, and discovering Luitpold Coast, Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, and Vahsel Bay. It failed to establish a shore base from which to mount its transcontinental march, and after a long drift in the Weddell Sea pack ice it returned to South Georgia. [30][48][49]
1911–14 Australia Australasian Antarctic Expedition Aurora Man wearing a tie, waistcoat and jacket.
Mawson, DouglasDouglas Mawson
The expedition concentrated on the stretch of Antarctic coastline between Cape Adare and Mount Gauss, carrying out mapping and survey work on coastal and inland territories. Discoveries included Commonwealth Bay, Ninnis Glacier, Mertz Glacier, and Queen Mary Land. [50][51]
1914–17 UK Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Endurance
Bearded middle-aged man with a cowboy hat.
Shackleton, ErnestErnest Shackleton
Another transcontinental crossing attempt. It failed to land the Weddell Sea shore party after Endurance was trapped and crushed in ice. The expedition then rescued itself after a series of exploits, including a prolonged drift on an ice-floe, Shackleton's open boat journey, and the first crossing of South Georgia. [52][53]
1914–17 UK Ross Sea party In support of
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
Aurora A man in formal dress. Crop from a group picture.
Mackintosh, AeneasAeneas Mackintosh
Its objective was to lay depots across the Great Ice Barrier, to supply the party crossing from the Weddell Sea. All the required depots were laid, but in the process three men, including the leader Mackintosh, lost their lives. [54]
1921–22 UK Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Quest Man wearing a thick jumper and over it suspenders.
Shackleton, ErnestErnest Shackleton
Vaguely defined objectives included coastal mapping, a possible continental circumnavigation, the investigation of sub-Antarctic islands, and oceanographic work. After Shackleton's death on 5 January 1922, Quest completed a shortened programme before returning home. [55][56]

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