Picture credit: H Ponting; Getty Images Gallery'
Picture credit: H Ponting; Getty Images Gallery'
|Expedition start||1911-10-20||1911-11-01 ||Amundsen 11 days ahead of Scott|
|80° S||1911-10-23||1911-11-18||1117 km to the pole, Amundsen 26 days ahead|
|81° S||1911-10-31||1911-11-23||1005 km to the pole, Amundsen 23 days ahead|
|82° S||1911-11-05||1911-11-28||893 km to the pole, Amundsen 23 days ahead|
|83° S||1911-11-09||1911-12-02||782 km to the pole. Amundsen 23 days ahead|
|84° S||1911-11-13||1911-12-15||670 km to the pole, Amundsen 32 days ahead|
|85° S||1911-11-17||1911-12-21||558 km to the pole, Amundsen 34 days ahead|
|86° S||1911-11-27||1911-12-26||447 km to the pole, Amundsen 29 days ahead|
|87° S||1911-12-04||1912-01-01||335 km to the pole, Amundsen 27 days ahead|
|88° S||1911-12-06||1912-01-06||223 km to the pole, Amundsen 31 days ahead|
|88° 23' S||1911-12-07||1912-01-09||Southernmost point reached by Shackleton, 181 km to the pole |
Amundsen 33 days ahead
|89° S||1911-12-10||1912-01-13||112 km to the pole, Amundsen 34 days ahead|
|89° 46' S||1911-12-13||1912-01-16||25 km to the pole, Scott finds the first proof of Amundsen|
|South Pole, 90° S||1911-12-14, 15:00||1912-01-17, 18:30||Amundsen 34 days ahead of Scott|
|Termination||1912-01-25, 04:00: |
Amundsen's expedition returns to base camp after 99 days en route and no casualties
|Scott's expedition dies on return journey |
1912-02-17: Evans dies; 1912-03-16: Oates dies
1912-03-19: Final camp of Scott, Wilson and Bowers, 18 km short of One Ton depot at 79°29' S
1912-03-29: Approximate date of Scott, Wilson and Bowers dying, 150 days after embarking
1912-11-12: Bodies found by the search party
|Departure from the Antarctic||1912-01-30||1913-01-??|
|Fate known to public||1912-03-08: |
Amundsen sends a telegram from Hobart, Tasmania informing the world that he reached the South Pole
|1913-02-10: The world is informed of the tragedy when Terra Nova reaches Oamaru, New Zealand|
With the sextant he made obeisance to the sun-god, he consulted ancient tomes and tables of magic characters, muttered prayers in a strange tongue that sounded like Indexerrorparallaxrefraction, made cabalistic signs on paper, added and carried one, and then, on a piece of holy script called the Grail - I mean, the Chart - he placed his finger on a certain space conspicuous for its blankness and said, "Here we are." When we looked at the blank space and asked, "And where is that?" he answered in the cipher-code of the higher priesthood, "31 -15 - 47 north, 133 - 5 - 30 west." And we said, "Oh," and felt mighty small.
Jack London, The Cruise of the SnarkA sextant is an instrument used to measure the angle between any two visible objects. Its primary use is to determine the angle between a celestial object and the horizon which is known as the altitude. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight and it is an essential part of celestial navigation. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. A common use of the sextant is to sight the sun at solar noon and to measure the elevation (altitude) angle at night to measure the elevation angle from the horizon plane to Polaris to find one's latitude. Since the sextant can be used to measure the angle between any two objects, it can be held horizontally to measure the angle between any two landmarks which will allow for calculation of a position on a chart. A sextant can also be used to measure the Lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object (e.g., star, planet) in order to determine Greenwich time which is important because it can then be used to determine the longitude.
The Italianate style began in England with the picturesque movement of the 1840s. For the previous 200 years, English homes tended to be formal and classical in style. With the picturesque, movement, however, builders began to design fanciful recreations of Italian Renaissance villas. When the Italianate style moved to the United States, it was reinterpreted again to create a uniquely American style.
By the late 1860s, Italianate was the most popular house style in the United States. Historians say that Italianate became the favored style for two reasons:
“Why should three sane and common-sense explorers be sledging away on a winter’s night to a Cape which has only been visited before in daylight, and then with very great difficulty?” asked Cherry-Garrard in his book The Worst Journey in the World. Because the Emperor penguin – which was six feet tall, never stepped on land, laid its eggs on ice during the winter, rested the eggs on its feet and pressed them to its abdomen for incubation – was “probably the most primitive bird in the world”.
After three weeks, during which they were sometimes unable to travel more than a mile a day, and the temperature could descend to -75F, they found the birds. “We were witnessing a marvel of the natural world, and we were the first and only men who had ever done so,” enthused Cherry-Garrard. “We had within our grasp material which might prove of the utmost importance to science; we were turning theories into facts with every observation we made.” Men had seen the Emperors before but never with their eggs; and they had never collected undamaged eggs containing embryos. Wilson believed they might reveal the missing evolutionary link between dinosaurs and birds – he was wrong, but the surviving eggs and embryos remain much asked-for treasures of the Natural History Museum.
Captain Scott may have failed to become the first to reach the Pole – but for his contributions to science, he will be remembered for ever.
BACK TO THE POLE?
Happy Feet, Lost Emperor Penguin, Swims for Antarctic Home. Follow the journey!